11. Enviromental Protection

Engineering measures on environmental protection, territory and population protection against adverse influences of natural and man-induced origin, including:

1. Protection of territories in zones of dangerous geological and engineering-geological processes: Measures on prevention and protection against landslide processes:

  • formation of Master plan on landslide measures of Kyiv territory for 2013-2025;
  • formation of Engineering protection program of Kyiv territory against landslide for 2011-2015;
  • formation of State regulations on maintenance of facilities situated on landslide dangerous territories;
  • creation and implementation of effective control system for meeting works performance and life within landslide- and landslide dangerous territories;
  • performance of landslide protection works on landslide dangerous areas according to General plan for landslide control of Kyiv City territory;
  • monitoring of development of erosion processes, landslide, deformation of sidehills.

    Flood protection: formation of information systems of hydrological regime change and its influence on flooding and under-flooding of Kyiv City territory;

  • prohibition of assigning and stopping of development of already assigned areas before elaboration of engineering protection projects for the territory;
  • introduction of official moratorium on filling of water areas of Dnipro river, small rivers and reservoirs;
  • formation of protection projects on existing and future development of different destination against possible floods of different provision or breakthrough of Kyiv Hydro Power Plant dam;
  • reconstruction of closed collectors in beds of small rivers.

    Underfl ooding protection:completion of development and approval of Program of City measures concerning regeneration of lakes, rivers, ponds and sources in Kyiv City;

  • use of effective landslide protection measures in areas of their connection with underflooding including within future development (near 287 ha);
  • providing of underflooding territory of green zone with proper treatment and performance of special steps for organization of recreation use of the territories;
  • performance of improvement (tapping) of springs and improvement of ground water flows;
  • development of project and taking steps on underflooding liquidation.

    Protection against potential underflooding of built-up territories:clearance, upgrading of available drains (both opened and closed);

  • installation of drains for protection of underground parts of buildings and facilities, if necessary with forced disposal of drainage flow (with construction of drainage station);
  • performance of reinforced waterproofing of underground parts with usage of high technology and materials;
  • capital repairs (upgrading/reconstruction) of utilities for the purpose of decrease of water loss and decrease of probability of dangerous geological phenomena activation;
  • equipping of problem areas with net of observation wells.

    2. Measures on decrease of pollution of atmosphere by road transport:

    • optimization of road traffic (building of junctions, tunnels, redistribution of traffic flow building of underground and land pedestrian crossings including restriction of truck transport flow in the territory of Kyiv);

    • increase of standards of fuel used in the City (“Euro-5”);
    • popularization of bicycle transport and building of cycle lanes;
    • extension of control station net and surveillance over condition of atmosphere according to offers of Central Geophysical Observatory since 20 till 27;
    • decrease of transportation influences – equipping of transportation with NO2 neutralizators;
    • building of gas-proof shields together with green ways-shields;
    • development of street planting for their effectivization, increase of general landscaping level of the territory, including with use of roof and vertical landscaping;
    • modernization of motive power of bus fleet with change of old engine models for models with new ones that meet modern European standards.

      3. Measures on decrease of pollution of atmosphere by stationary sources:ecological and sanitary control of industrial plants activities of Kyiv City;

    • emission inventory and development (correcting) of sanitary protection zones passports of enterprises, control of their usage mode and landscaping level;
    • technical reequipment of enterprises of heat engineering, chemical, construction engineering for effectivization of emission clearance and decrease of their sanitary protection zones in future;
    • liquidation or shifting of I-II harm class manufacturing enterprises (according to sanitary classification) situated in areas with high population density;
    • prohibition of roof boilers and leading of central part of the City for electric heating in future.

      4. Measures on decrease of zone of influence of physical factors:monitoring of radiation condition of the territory, liquidation of revealed sources of pollution; • observation of sources of electromagnetic radiation;

    • development of passports of sanitary protection zones and meeting territory usage mode, determination of construction free area with the purpose of protection against sources of electromagnetic radiation;
    • decrease of noise and vibration influence of stationary and mobile sources, production facilities, transformer substations, air, railway and automobile transport;
    • usage of architectural and planning measures on decrease of negative influence of noise pollution: usage of sound-absorbing materials, designing of anti-noise window valves, fixation of massive or ridged fences on balconies and recessed balconies;
    • building of special noise-protective shields along streets for restriction of penetration of noise to residential areas;
    • usage of vibro-noise-protective constructions during reconstruction of traffic arteries, fixation of noise screens;
    • formation of anti-noise landscaped areas system along railway and main highways (effective planting 50 m and more for width, vertical planting) providing noise reduction;
    • development of noise chart for Kyiv City and implementation of municipal Program on noise protection, electromagnetic radiation and other adverse influence.

      5. Measures on decrease and providing of modes of sanitary-protective strips of facilities:development and implementation of projects of organization of sanitary-protective zones of manufacturing enterprises (industrial zones) with the purpose of exclusion of cases of population residence in overtime influence zones of facilities;

    • technical reequipment of enterprises of heat engineering, chemical, construction engineering for effectivization of emission clearance and decrease of their sanitary protection zones in future;
    • liquidation or shifting of I-II harm class manufacturing enterprises (according to sanitary classification) situated in areas with high population density;
    • taking of complex of special engineering measures in acting cemeteries for decrease of their sanitary protection zones;
    • assessment of population health risk residing within standard sanitary protection zones of manufacturing enterprises;
    • protection of population residing within sanitary protection zones by means of medical diagnostics, early and qualitative treatment of diseases.

      6. Measures on providing of modes of zones for protection of potable water supply sources:establishing of belts of zones for protection of potable water supply sources and control of their management;

    • waterworks reliability enhancement and receiving of proper quality potable water at accidental pollution of water supply sources

      7. Measures on reservoirs, ground waters protection, on providing of modes for water protection zones:providing of restriction of business activity and fixing of effective control of meeting nature management norms within Costal Protection Belt (PZS) according to requirements of current Legislation, taking their boundaries in kind;

    • increase of sanitary and epidemiological control of beaches and reservoirs conditions operated for recreation, for providing their meeting State Sanitary Regulation No.173 (ДСП № 173);
    • providing of proper treatment of water objects according to service norms and regulations;
    • building of disposal facilities of storm drainage;
    • development of extension projects of PZS to 1190 ha for providing of normative condition of reservoirs and rehabilitation of natural complex including within territories of municipal and industrial meaning provided for by functional reprofiling;
    • development of correction project “Project of PZSs of water objects in Kyiv City” according to new topographic base and modern condition of the City water objects;
    • development of projects and creation of boulevards-quays along bank lines of small rivers (Nyvka, Lybid, Lyubka) with 51,9 ha area, will carry out water protection, meliorative and recreational functions;
    • providing of creation of drainage systems which let use ground waters to the full for water content increase in opened stream fl ows;
    • capture of natural sources including those ones, which are sources of stream flows;
    • continuation of work on redevelopment of banks, reservoirs basins clearing (842 ha of water surface) and nullas (28 km) from sedimentation, overgrowth, foulness;
    • renewal of construction machinery and mechanisms of Public Utility “Pleso” used for performance of works on warning of negative situations or on emergency response;
      • detecting of all unreliable wells, their diagnostics and necessary repair, or their change for new wells;
      • improvement of system of monitoring hydrogeological, hydrochemical and radiation observations (monitoring);
      • completion of development and approval of Program of public measures concerning regeneration and rehabilitation of lakes, rivers, ponds and springs in Kyiv City and to cause to be steadily executed.

        8. Measures on soils rehabilitation:correcting of existing sanitation scheme inclusive of new conditions of the City development (problem solution of household waste recycling and of fallen leaves);

      • decrease of pollution negative influence by means of reconstruction, modernization and re-equipment (reprofiling) of industrial facilities;
      • restoration of closed quarries and sanitary landfills, heavily eroded grounds;
      • taking package of measures on melioration, localization and conservation of surface soils in the territories, the total index of the grounds pollution of which exceed 64 conventional grades (especially within the enterprises under changing of the business line, within the territories adjacent to railway stations and arterial roads);
      • creation of ecological state monitoring system for soils;
      • control of soils imported for planting and landscaping of urban areas.9. Measures on the territory sanitation:
        Domestic Solid Waste (TPV):
        Implementation of TVP segregation, separate collection and removal (expected TPV volume for later 2025 is 1200 thous. t.):
        creation of covered, fenced off, enlarged (9-20 sq. m for 2-4 containers, 1,1 м3 each container ) container yards and their arrangement according to current sanitary standards and according to Resolution on development rules of Kyiv City No.1051/1051 dated 25.12.2008 р.; grounding of their arrangement from the point of view of the greatest streams of people and convenience of dump trucks approach;
      • implementation of TPV separate collection (mostly of 2-container system – «dry» and «wet» fraction);
      • containers renewal inclusive of sanitary standards and implementation of TPV separate collection: 25000 pieces for «wet» fraction, 9000 pieces for «dry» fraction;
      • development of public Program on popularization of TPV separate collection among population;
      • development of measures concerning providing of performance of Program and development of management system in TPV handling and organizational measures on the program implementation monitoring;
      • development of Chart for Kyiv City sanitation;
      • for decrease of food waste as a part of TPV, popularization and obligatory fixing of recovery units for food waste in new high buildings;
      • decrease of TPV quantity to be repeatedly segregated by means of development of networks of immobile and mobile pick-up sections for utility waste in all districts of Kyiv City (paper, cardboard, metal, glass, PET-bottles, cans, rags etc) – total is 35-40 pcs.;
      • solution of problems of hazardous waste recovery (batteries, mercury lamps etc) by means of organization of proprietary pick-up section in each urban district;
        • processing only “dry” fraction of TPV at waste sorting stations that let increase of effectiveness of industrial waste sorting up to 90% of recycled materials;
      • • only unutilized par of TPV should be taken to landfill (waste from containers with humidity up to 60 %, unutilized remainder after industrial sorting). TPV part to be disposed, is near 30 % of total TPV quantity;
      • renewal of emergency vehicles for separate disposition of dry and “wet” fraction to places of waste processing and renewal of machines for waste management facilities (500 pcs.).