13. Functional and Planning of Suburban Area
Baseline condition and problem of development of suburban area territory
Composition of suburban area is determined by the territory boundaries, where can be found active influence of Kyiv on both manufacture and on use of lands, labour, recreational, water resources and condition of natural environment. Taking this into account,
the suburban area is limited by a ring with 60-80 kilometers radius that is in one hour transport access to the capital. This zone contains 10 districts and 6 cities of region subordinance, and the zone area is near 1175,74 thous. ha – almost a half of the whole territory of Kyiv region.
Besides in the context of demography, the figures are more significant, but population of the suburban area is near 985 thous. persons, that is its turn “takes away”
near 58% of population of Kyiv region, and demographic density of the suburban area is more than indicators of some towns – 80 persons for square kilometer.
Area of the suburban area of Kyiv city is – 1175,74 thous. ha, from them agricultural land has 40,68 %, forests – 26,3 %, lands for residential development and civil development – 10,14 %, territories of garden associations – 0,69 %, premises – 1,15 %, under reservoirs – 6,94 %, meadows – 11,94 %, municipal territories – 0,62 %, recreational territory – 0,36 %, special territories – 1,13 %.
Near 500 thous. persons live in a zone of Kyiv influence as a center of the forming local system within a radius of 60 km. Influence zone of centers of displacement local systems consists of total of local systems the centers of which are small towns and urban settlements with population from 3 to 20 thous. persons. Moreover, there are towns with greater population in this zone. These are town of Brovary – 60 thous. pers., Boryspil – 50 thous. pers.,Vasylkiv – 40 thous. pers., which compose near belt of Kyiv monocentric agglomeration that are under formation. Rural settlements which use local cultural-domestic institutions of daily service are situated in the zone of displacement local systems, and they have decreasingly labour relations.
Kyiv city and its suburban area compose unified social and economic complex – Kyiv agglomeration, development of which is determined by the capital functions. Law of Ukraine «On capital of Ukraine – Kyiv hero-city” (art. 25) fixes that local authorities and executive authorities of Kyiv region should assist in implementation of capital functions by Kyiv city by means of, in particular, meeting suburban area mode. Unsatisfactory ecological state of a number of the suburban area territory contradicts this mode (especially it concerns its sanitation) that considerably connected with the capital influence. Observance of the given mode of the suburban area territory use, first of all, meets long-term interests of the capital and population of the suburban area.
Run of branching network in the territories of the suburban area supports creation of storage complexes along its routs which are used for rehandling as well as roadside service objects.
Principal directions of socio-economic development and demographic prediction
Development strategy is a model of balanced development of the territories that provides for a balance of housing- and public- and manufacture and commercial territories, meeting the main requirements for use of suburban and green zones territories with development of functions traditional for these zones and regulated displacement of manufacture and commercial zones for location in them of ecophilian objects and of high tech objects and enterprises of municipal sphere connected with economic complex of the capital.
Priority guidelines of development of the suburban area territoryaccording to State strategy of regional development of the year and Concept of chart for planning of territory of Kyiv region for a period till 2015:
- development and integration of systems of engineering and transport infrastructure, development of logistics centers;
- increase of working places in the suburban area;
- reforming of housing and utilities infrastructure, implementation of recourse- and energy-saving technologies;
- easing of ecological situation, solution of question on TPV recycling;
- maintenance of unified landscape and recreational system of green planting and heritage sites;
- development of tourism and recreational complex;
- development of high tech agricultural industry;
- development of high tech, knowledge-intensive production in engineering and petrochemical industry;
- creation of scientific and production clusters – of associations of related enterprises, manufactures, organizations, providing full processing chain within local territory for the purpose of their total systematic effectivization.
Functional and Planning Arrangement of Territory
Evolutional town-planning processes connected with spatial development of Kyiv City determine the regular needs for the transfer of specific functions of the capital to the regional territory. Herewith interests of Kyiv Region community concerning the acceptability of certain territorial needs of Kyiv within the regional territories shall be taken into account. The relevant questions on territorial redistribution of budget receipts must be solved. This trend agrees with stance of EC policy concerning the stimulation of local system polycentricity development which is able to ensure the parity for access of agglomeration residents to local infrastructure, balance between urbanized and natural territories.
The several deciding conditions belong to the most important competitive advantages for perspective development of Kyiv suburban area which will hereafter determine the perspectives of social and economic development, trends for territory use and planning arrangement: administrative and economic connection to Kyiv, geographic location, production base, engineering and transport system, so called biological productivity of lands, network of inhabited localities, investment attractiveness.
The territorial development of suburban areas is generally based on the necessity of efficient use of lands. Therefore it is provided for to locate primarily objects of residential, public utility and recreational construction within the territory of nearest suburban area belt to Kyiv - as a result of complex of communication, economic, geographical and demographic factors.
The town-planning potential of Zhytomyr, Odesa, Vinnytsya, Kharkiv and Chernigiv arterial directions is considerably enhanced thanks to use of international transport corridors in the system. In its turn the construction of southern transport roundabout of Kyiv combines these directions and redistributes increasing traffic flows to 10-20 km from existing border of the capital. As a result the additional conditions are established to locate transport and warehouse complexes, car service facilities, trade offices, etc. In addition, the further urbanization of the nearest suburban area belt is determined by planning development of inhabited localities – satellites – Brovary, Boryspil, Vyshgorod, Vyshneve, Boyarka, Glevakha as centers of the nearest district settlement and recreation systems.
The producing and distribution of innovations, science, education and culture, commercial and business field, tourism, high-technology low resource intensive ecophilian productions shall be the prevailing kinds of activities in suburban area. The distribution of these functions between Kyiv and certain parts of suburban area, parameters of its effective development depend on social and economic needs of the capital of the one part and resource possibilities of surrounding territories of the other part, if it is necessary to take into account the interests of population within these territories.
First of all it is planned to use the territory of suburban area to build residential, public utility, production, transport and warehouse objects. It is caused by considerable exhaustiveness and too high cost of lands in the capital, however it can lead to excessive urbanization of suburban area territories. The general layout of Kyiv City provides for to build residential objects for residents of Kyiv Region and residents of Kyiv City (primarily plantation-style, mid-rise and high-rise) within the territory of suburban area till 2020. It is also provided for to relocate a number of industrial plants including resource intensive and ecophobian outside Kyiv City.
The expansion of list of possible kinds for use of suburban area territory is carried out in the interests of residents of these territories and leads to increase of workplace amount, investment volumes, population incomes and receipt of money by local budget.
The project determines the most attractive zones for further development of residential building – both low-rise and high-rise as well as industry.
Settlement.Urban settlement is a form of territorial organization of population life as towns, the development of which is connected with location of industrial enterprises, building, transport objects, with post-industrial kinds of activities. It is concentrated in towns - district centers and cities of regional subordination.
Rural settlement is a form of territorial organization of population life within the suburban territory as an agglomeration of villages, settlements of different types for permanent or temporary residence. It differs from urban one in the fact that it mainly ensures the performance of such economic functions as agricultural production, forest and wood and paper economy, recreation service, environmental functions. Therefore rural settlement is defined by lesser quantity of settlement people, prevalence of low-rise building and one-family households.
Development of Cities, Settlements and Rural Settlements. The basis for organization of administrative-territorial system in Ukraine is settled network that consists of settlements - cities, rural settlements, villages as areas of permanent compact residence for people. The stated categorization of settlements is defi ned depending on people quantity, urbanization level, municipal services organization and nature of economic activity of residents.
Basic Lines of Kyiv Settlement System Development.
It is not provided for to develop the settlement system to the northward along Dnipro River bed – on the coast of Kyiv reservoir. This alternative is economically unjustified, if the role of Dnipro River as a main traffic artery including of trade and economic value is reduced. That is why the most promising lines of settlement system development are the following:
- settlement development to the westward along the way to Kovel (Varshavska way) in the form of so called Irpin’ agglomeration that becomes a complex town-planning structure with signs of satellite towns (Irpin’, Bucha, Vorzel). This system becomes self-suffi cient and has no any strong influence on Kyiv, all the more so that land resources for industrial and residential areas are limited. By the way the system has a comfort railway communication and can get a linear development;
- development to the south-westward in the area between Zhytomyrska and Odeska ways. The area has sufficient resources to build residential, industrial, commercial, transport systems. The economic benefit lies in the fact that on this side high traffic arteries are located to form logistic centers;
- development to the southward in Obukhiv direction and along Kyiv-Lugansk road with possibility to develop industrial area of Obukhiv Town as well as to build a new urbanized town-planning settlement in the Velyka Bugayivka District with functions of residential, offi ce and commercial development;
- development to the eastward in Boryspil direction and direction of International Airport is attractable for commercial, offi ce development, building of technology parks and big shopping centers. The territory has ground-water resources but there are diffi culties with construction of centralized waste treatment facilities;
- development north-eastward in Brovary direction including industrial and residential areas near Knyazhychi - Velyka Dymerka villages, residential territory of so called Desna River region (Pogreby, Zazym’ye, Pukhivka). The direction is promising with relation to integration to Livoberezhna part of Kyiv City, relief of traffic flow as well as location of Kyiv branch offices and building of new production and offi ce complexes, work places for residents of Desnyanskyi and Dniprovskyi Districts. Geological conditions are favourable for water supply from artesian wells. The territory is north corridor to Republic of Belarus as well as it has access to Russia and Sumy direction.
Automobile Roads and External Transport
Automobile transport connection in Kyiv suburban area to the west-east, south-north is carried out through streets of Kyiv City as well as in the area of Kyiv semi-ring (T-10-27) and east area of Ring Road Boryspil-Brovary-Kalynivka.
In order to ensure transport communications and conditions of traffic it is proposed to resolve traffic problems in Kyiv City and Kyiv Region in an integrated manner, namely:
- to merge seamlessly the main arterial streets and external automobile roads of nationwide and region subordance;
- to build Main Ring Road in Kyiv City (hereinafter referred to as VKAD) according to general direction approved by Order of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine dated 22.02.2008 under No. 326-p and in accordance with location of two-level junctions to ensure deconfliction of traffic flow at the different levels with existing automobile roads, existing and projected arterial exits from Kyiv City;
- to build relief road system for main exits from Kyiv City at the most busy directions which shall undertake a part of traffic flow to Kyiv and from Kyiv during the rush hours.
It is proposed to build Kyiv relief ring road in the area between Zhytomyr and Odesa directions, from Chayky Settlement to Gatne Village in Kyyevo-Svyatoshynskyi District.
Moreover it is proposed to build additional radial exit—accesses from Kyiv. It is provided for to build Kyiv-Chop relief road through Sofi yivska-Borshchagivka, Petrivska, Bilogorodska, Bobrytska, Gorenytska, Lychanska, Muzychanska, Yasnogorodska, Motyzhenska, Fastivska Village Councils with exit through two-level junction to Kyiv-Chop road.
The town-planning potential of Zhytomyr, Odesa, Vinnytsya, Kharkiv and Chernigiv arterial directions is considerably enhanced thanks to building of additional relief road for international transport corridor system.
It is provided for to build transport connection hubs with parkings (similar to international system “park and drive”) in order to reduce traffi c flow to the capital. It is planned to build six main hubs near the capital, 2 on the left bank, 4 on the right bank of Dnipro River, namely:
• Kalynivka – Skybyn (Brovary District). In order to build this transport connection hub it is proposed to connect by means of electric transport metro station “Lisova” with Velyka Dymerka Village Council in Brovary District and north-eastern industrial district (Velyka Dymerka – Bogdanivka) at the same time using railway track paved to TPP-6 during daylight hours for local transport and during the hours of darkness for freight transport.
- Gora – Boryspil (Boryspil District). The location of International Airport “Boryspil” and electric transport communication to Kyiv City are favourable to build transport connection hub in these territories.
- Teremky (Kyiv City). It is planned to construct metro up to City ring road and future bus station according to metro development scheme.
- Buzova (Kyyevo-Svyatoshynskyi District). It is expedient to pave way for express tramway along projected automobile road through Belogorodka to Buzova and extend it from Pivdenna Borshchagivka to industrial hub “Buzova” parallel to Kyiv-Chop relief road.
- Mykulychi (Borodyanka District). It is provided for to use existing railway track and electric trains for communication to the capital.
Railway Transport. It is proposed to transform railway tracks within the bounds of suburban area to above-ground subway system with gradual transfer of long distance train (passenger and freight) service functions to suburban area. It is provided for to build diverging line to railway for railway electric transport to Boryspil Airport, from railway track in Boryspil direction in the area of Velyka Oleksandrivka.
Taking into account the use of railway transport in transport network, the need arises to build new railway distributing stations outside Kyiv City. Firstly, they can substitute railway freight stations in the capital and secondly, it is necessary to build technical maintenance complexes for railway transport in the territories purposed for track facilities. It is proposed to build two such complexes near Velyka Dymerka in Brovary District and Kalynivka-Plesetske in Vasylkivskyi District (near Bagryn Village).
Air Transport. The air gates of Ukraine – International State Airport “Boryspil” is situated at the territory of suburban area. Its development is in progress and the air traffic capacity will be increased by 3-4 times. The same concerns the Airport “Zhulyany” which is awarded the status of International City Airport. It is defined within long-term period to build Airport “Roslavychi” on the right bank of Dnipro River, at the boundary of Vasylkiv and Obukhiv Districts near Velyka Bugayivka Village. The airport is proposed to locate near the projected VKAD and railway track which will be awarded the status of international transport corridors of Ukraine.
It is provided for to develop freight (freight and passenger) airport in Uzyn Town as well as to transfer sport airport “Chayka” to Makariv District (Fasova Village).
Inland Water Transport. It is proposed primarily to use inland water transport as travel and recreation transport in Kyiv City and renew route passenger transportations cross Dnipro River. The potential of freight traffic by inland water transport will be outside Kyiv City. The cargo port “Ukrayinka” is situated at Ukrayinka Town in Obukhiv District.The automobile and railway transport will be relieved by means of renewing inland water transport in Ukraine. There are all conditions for this purpose: Dnipro River – “natural keystone of Ukraine” – the third river in Europe by length and square, the biggest river in Ukraine, flows to the Black Sea that has conditions for international trade without use of sea ports.
Measures To Ensure Common Interests of Kyiv City and Territorial Communities
A number of directions for the development requires coordinating actions of the City of region.
balanced settlement system development and accommodation of land borders in Kyiv City and suburban area of Kyiv Region;
- integration to uniform system of transport infrastructure of Kyiv and suburban area;
- development of common system for engineering infrastructure of Kyiv and suburban area in order to ensure the safety of its functioning, quality of services for people and business;
- agreed development of social and public utility infrastructure of Kyiv and suburban area;
- agreement of environment policy;
- preservation of cultural and historical landscape system in remote areas of Kyiv and surrounding areas in Kyiv Region.
The most important measures requiring mutually agreed actions of the City and region that concern five directions for the development.
1. The following actions are aimed to perform in order to create common settlement system:
to complete accommodation and approval of designs for land borders in Kyiv City and administrative districts of Kyiv Region and Kotsyubynske Settlement;
- to develop objects for labour, cultural and daily and recreation of people;
- to build objects for residential development and infrastructure;
- to increase investment prospects of territories.
2. The following actions shall be jointly carried out for the integration of transport infrastructure:routes of local and suburban public transport;
- VKAD construction;
- to build relief system for the main exits from Kyiv at the most busy directions;
- to build additional radial accesses to Kyiv;
- to make six transport connection hubs with parkings (“park and drive”), their communication to local electric transport.
3. It is necessary to provide for in order to develop common engineering infrastructure system:to determine plots for construction of garbage recycling plants, water supply intakes, treatment facilities and electric substations within the territory of suburban area.
- to distribute the functions between the City and suburban area of Kyiv Region concerning the engineering infrastructure for residents of suburban;
4. It is necessary to carry out the following actions in order to develop common social infrastructure systems:location in Kyiv and suburban area of infrastructure objects taking into account migration flows;
- location within the territory of suburban area of objects which require the considerable territories and special sanitary and epidemiological conditions of using (health and rest establishments, holiday hotels, health resorts, large-scaled sport and recreation objects, cemeteries).
5. It is necessary to provide for in order to pursue common environment policy:technological reequipment and moving a number of industrial objects outside the City, to the territory of the region;
- to provide for the territories in order to form planting zones that are common for Kyiv and its suburban area.
In order to implement certain projects protecting common interests of Kyiv City and surrounding territorial communities, special agreements can be concluded according to “Memorandum of Cooperation between Kyiv Municipal State Administration and Kyiv Region State Administration in the field of social and economic, scientific and technical, humanitarian and cultural development and town-planning sphere” (No. 2 dated 15.10.2010, No. 11-38-17540 dated 15.10.2010).